Connectivity in device-to-device networks in Poisson-Voronoi cities

Here’s a recently uploaded manuscript:

  • 2023 – Keeler, Błaszczyszyn, Cali – Connectivity and interference in device-to-device networks in Poisson-Voronoi cities.

This work presents numerical results complementing mathematical work carried out by us. The work concerns (continuum) percolation results for a special network model based on Poisson-Voronoi tessellations.

The most relevant work are these two papers (the first being somewhat seminal):

  1. Dousse, Franceschetti, Macris, Meester, Thiran, Percolation in the signal to interference ratio graph, 1996.
  2. Le Gall, Błaszczyszyn, Cali, and En-Najjary, Continuum line-of-sight percolation on Poisson-Voronoi tessellations, 2021

Our work effectively seeks to combine these two papers. We obtain the equivalents results from the first paper by coupling its connectivity model with the connectivity model and network model (based on a Cox point process) presented in the second paper.

If you want a more detailed version, here’s the abstract:

To study the overall connectivity in device-to-device networks in cities, we incorporate a signal-to-interference-plus-noise connectivity model into a Poisson-Voronoi tessellation model representing the streets of a city. Relays are located at crossroads (or street intersections), whereas (user) devices are scattered along streets. Between any two adjacent relays, we assume data can be transmitted either directly between the relays or through users, given they share a common street. Our simulation results reveal that the network connectivity is ensured when the density of users (on the streets) exceeds a certain critical value. But then the network connectivity disappears when the user density exceeds a second critical value. The intuition is that for longer streets, where direct relay-to-relay communication is not possible, users are needed to transmit data between relays, but with too many users the interference becomes too strong, eventually reducing the overall network connectivity. This observation on the user density evokes previous results based on another wireless network model, where transmitter-receivers were scattered across the plane. This effect disappears when interference is removed from the model, giving a variation of the classic Gilbert model and recalling the lesson that neglecting interference in such network models can give overly optimistic results. For physically reasonable model parameters, we show that crowded streets (with more than six users on a typical street) lead to a sudden drop in connectivity. We also give numerical results outlining a relationship between the user density and the strength of any interference reduction techniques.

In future posts I’ll detail the above work as well as our more mathematical work on this type of percolation model.

A Fields Medal goes to another percolation researcher

The Fields Medal is a prize in mathematics awarded every four years to two to four outstanding researchers (forty years old or younger) working in mathematics. One of the medals this year was awarded to French mathematician Hugo Duminil-Copin who has solved problems and obtained new results in the percolation theory which lies in the intersection of probability and statistical physics. Here’s a good Quanta article on Duminil-Copin and some of his work.

(The other winners are June Huh, James Maynard, and Maryna Viazovska.)

The Fields Medal people has been kind to probability researchers in recent years. Previous winners working in probability have included Wendelin Werner (2006), Stanislav Smirov (2010), and Martin Hairer (2014), while other winners in recent years have also made contributions to probability.

All in all, that’s not too shabby for a discipline that for a long, long time wasn’t considered part of mathematics.  (That story deserves a post on its own.)

I work nowhere near Duminil-Copin, but I have used some percolation theory in my work. I will write a couple of posts on percolation theory. Eventually, I may even mention some recent work that my collaborators and I have been working on.

Frozen code

My simulation code has been frozen and buried in Norway. Well, some of my code that I keep on a GitHub repository has become part of a code preservation project. Consequently, beneath my profile it reads:

Arctic Code Vault Contributor

This is part of what is called the GitHub Archive Program. The people behind it aim to preserve large amounts of (open source) code for future generations in thousands and thousands of years time. But how do they do that?

Well, basically, the good people at GitHub chose and converted many, many, many lines of code into certain error-resistant formats, such as QR code. They then printed it all out and buried it deep in an abandoned mine shaft in frozen Norway. (The frozen and stable Norway is also home to a famous seed bank.)

My code in this project includes most of the code that has appeared in these posts. Of course my contribution is just a drop in the vast code ocean of this project. In fact, at least two or three of my colleagues have also had their code put into deep freeze.

Still, it’s a nice thought to know that stuff I wrote, including code for these very posts, will be potentially around for a very long time.

Coverage probability in wireless networks with determinantal scheduling

My collaborators and I uploaded a manuscript:

  • Błaszczyszyn, Brochard, and Keeler, Coverage probability in wireless networks with determinantal scheduling.


The paper builds off some previous work by us that uses a (relatively) new model in machine learning:

  • Błaszczyszyn and Keeler, Determinantal thinning of point processes with network learning applications.

The new machine learning model is based on a special type of point process called a determinantal point process. It was originally called a Fermion point process. These are useful point processes as the exhibit certain closure properties under certain operations such independent thinning.

Kulesza and Taskar introduced and developed the framework for using determinantal point processes for machine learning models.


The MATLAB code for the producing the results in the paper can be found here:

I also re-wrote the MATLAB code into Python:

Determinantal thinning of point processes with network learning applications

My colleague and I uploaded a manuscript:

  • Błaszczyszyn and Keeler, Determinantal thinning of point processes with network learning applications.


The paper uses a (relatively) new model frame work in machine learning.  This framework is based on a special type of point process called a determinantal point process, which is also called a fermion point process. Kulesza and Taskar introduced and developed the framework for using determinantal point processes for machine learning models.


The MATLAB code for the producing the results in the paper can be found here:

I also re-wrote (or translated) the MATLAB code into Python:

An Improbable Start

This web log or blog, to the use parlance of our times, is a place for me to discuss and explains problems or research ideas that I am working on or just find interesting. The emphasis will be on words over equations, with the aim of trying to give an intuitive explanation for mathematical concepts encountered in applied probability.

Much of my work involves the use of random simulations, which are also called stochastic or Monte Carlo simulations, so I will often be posting on ideas illustrated with simulations. Most of my experience is using MATLAB, so that will be my default programming language, but I also have experience in the statistics-focused language R, which arguably has the best spatial statistics package spatstat going around. I also use Python coupled with appropriate libraries such as NumPy, especially for machine learning work.

I am considering learning other languages to do random simulation work. A possible candidate here is the relatively new Julia language, although nothing seems to compete against MATLAB in terms of user friendliness.

Feel free to contact me for questions or to point out mistakes. I do appreciate it. I may even reply.